Porcelain and ceramic materials are popular as dental restoratives because they look and feel very much like real teeth. It is difficult to provide a comprehensive list of ceramic components since they vary greatly depending, not only on the materials used but also depending on the type of restoration.
The basic ceramic restoration consists of the exterior restoration, which is fused to a framework. The framework is then attached to the teeth in order to hold the prosthetic in place. The exterior can be cut or milled from a prefabricated block of material, or it may be built up layer by layer to give the proper shading and appearance of a real tooth. It is then fired in order to harden the material and fuse the ceramic to the framework. The framework can be either a metal alloy (often gold based), or a sturdier form of ceramic.
The exterior ceramic is usually a type of porcelain made up of silicon dioxide, and typically containing varying amounts of zirconia or alumina to give it the proper color. Ceramic restorations can contain far more ingredients than those listed above, and the variations in composition give the wide range of properties that any given material can produce.
The framework of a ceramic restoration can be made from metal or another form of ceramic. The metal is usually an alloy of gold, platinum, palladium and silver, although many other metals are often used. A ceramic framework generally has a high zirconia content and can contain any of the same components as the exterior material.